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اثر جان رالز از انتشارات مرکز - مترجم: مرتضی نوری-بهترین کتاب ها و نمایشنامه های فلسفی

Since appearing in 1971, Rawls A Theory of Justice has become a classic. He aims to express an essential part of the common core of the democratic tradition--justice as fairness--& to provide an alternative to utilitarianism, which had dominated the Anglo-Saxon tradition of political thought since the 19th century. He substitutes the ideal of the social contract as a superior account of the basic rights & liberties of citizens as free & equal persons. "Each person," he writes, "possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override." Advancing ideas of Rousseau, Kant, Emerson & Lincoln, his theory is as powerful today as it was when 1st published.
Preface
Part I Theory
1 Justice as fairness
Role of justice
Subject of justice
Main idea of the theory of justice
Original position & justification
Classical utilitarianism
Some related contrasts
Intuitionism
Priority problem
Some remarks about moral theory
2 Principles of justice
Institutions & formal justice
Two principles of justice
Interpretations of the 2nd principle
Democratic equality & the difference principle
Fair equality of opportunity & pure procedural justice
Primary social goods as the basis of expectations
Relevant social positions
Tendency to equality
Principles for individuals: the principle of fairness
Principles for individuals: the natural duties
3 Original position
Nature of the argument for conceptions of justice
Presentation of alternatives
Circumstances of justice
Formal constraints off the concept of right
Veil of ignorance
Rationality of the parties
Reasoning leading to the two principles of justice
Reasoning leading to the principle of average utility
Some difficulties with the average principle
Some main grounds for the two principles of justice
Classical utilitarianism, impartiality & benevolence
Part II: Institutions
4 Equal liberty
Four-stage sequence
Concept of liberty
Equal liberty of conscience
Toleration & the common interest
Toleration of the intolerant
Political justice & the constitution
Limitations on the principle of participation
Rule of law
Priority of liberty defined
Kantian interpretation of justice as fairness
5 Distributive shares
Concept of justice in political economy
Some remarks about economic systems
Background institutions for distributive justice
Problem of justice between generations
Time preference
Further cases of priority
Precepts of justice
Legitimate expectations & moral desert
Comparison with mixed conceptions
Principle of perfection
6 Duty & obligation
Arguments for the principles of natural duty
Arguments for the principle of fairness
Duty to comply with an unjust law
Status of majority rule
Definition of civil disobedience
Definition of conscientious refusal
Justification of civil disobedience
Justification of conscientious refusal
Role of civil disobedience
Part III: Ends
7 Goodness as rationality
Need for a theory of the good
Definition of good for simpler cases
Note on meaning
Definition of good for plans of life
Deliberative rationality
Aristotelian principle
Definition of good applied to persons
Self-respect, excellences & shame
Several contrasts between the right & the good
8 Sense of justice
Concept of a well-ordered society
Morality of authority
Morality of association
Morality of principles
Features of the moral sentiments
Connection between moral & natural attitudes
Principles of moral psychology
Problem of relative stability
Basis of equality
9 Good of justice
Autonomy & objectivity
Idea of social union
Problem of envy
Envy & equality
Grounds for the priority of liberty
Happiness & dominant ends
Hedonism as a method of choice
Unity of the self
Good of the sense of justice
Concluding remarks on justification
Index


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