کتاب بحران های جمهوریت

اثر هانا آرنت از انتشارات فرهنگ جاوید - مترجم: علی معظمی-بهترین کتاب ها و نمایشنامه های فلسفی

A collection of studies in which Arendt, from the standpoint of a political philosopher, views the crises of the 1960s and early 1970s as challenges to the american form of government. First published as a separate book in 1969, On Violence has become influential with its emphasis on the inverse relation between power and violence. Lying in Politics, a discussion of the Pentagon Papers, is the most noteworthy among the other essays here (which first appeared in periodicals like the New York Review of Books). Professor Arendt underlines the fact that the Vietnam policy makers had remarkably accurate intelligence reports at their disposal and made remarkably consistent disuse of them; she concludes that defactualization could be sustained only because no real goals were sought beyond an image of power.


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معرفی کتاب بحران های جمهوریت از نگاه کاربران
هانا آرنت در «خشونت» از زمانه‌ی طغیانگری جوانان می‌گوید و قدرت را (که آن را نه مترادف خشونت، که در مقابل آن تعریف می‌کند) تحلیل می‌کند. نویسنده ریشه‌ها و آثار خشونت را بازبینی می‌کند و به تحلیل آرای تحسین‌کنندگان خشونت می‌پردازد

مشاهده لینک اصلی
بیشتر به جزوه و رساله‌ای کوچک شبیه است تا یک نظریه‌ و تحلیلِ صورت و پیکربندی‌شده‌ی مستوفی و منسجم. جستاری دربابِ مفهومِ خشونت نبود -لااقل از منظرِ تحلیل‌های زبانی و فلسفه‌ی تحلیلی-. بیشتر بررسیِ بخشی از تاریخِ سیاسیِ معاصر بود با لمحه‌ای از رویکردِ خشونت‌شناختی. جستاری در بررسیِ علل و زمینه‌ها و سرنوشتِ جنبش‌های دانشجویی هم. در مجموع راضی نبودم و یک ستاره را هم با اکراه به آن دادم.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Reading this book on Kindle, I was drawn to the @popular reader highlights@ which were confined exclusively to the essay on Lying in Politics. Amazon informed me that before I opened the book, over 100 people before me had highlighted some of Arendts statements about how regimes build up authority based on lies, and how lies appeal to people. She is certainly more insightful than most of the takes about Trump which you can get for free on HuffPo or various other free websites, so I can recommend this essay, but its not exactly an analysis which inspires new and revolutionary thought in the readers mind.

More interesting to me is @On Violence@ and the follow-up article after it, which Amazons software informed me got no highlights at all. The left-wing students that Arendt analyzes in 1968 sound very similar to the students of 2018, viz.::

@The [radical students] in the East demand precisely those freedoms of speech and thought that the young rebels in the West say they despise as irrelevant. On the level of ideologies, the whole thing is confusing; it is much less so if we start from the obvious fact that the party machines have succeeded everywhere in overruling the voice of the citizens, even in countries where freedom of speech and association is still intact.@

@On Violence@ showcases this and many other similarities between 1968 and 2018, cataloged by Arendt in a periphrastic, aloof manner. The essay is also interesting as an example of Arendts cold, vaguely racist attitude towards black nationalists; she refers to Swahili as a @non-language.@

Again, this is not really required reading but its pretty easy and interesting.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Lying in Politics was an interesting read, particularly in relation to Vietnam. Civil Disobedience, the main reason I picked up the book, was *very* thought provoking with regard to the @Occupy@ phenomenon.

I found On Violence to be less interesting than the first two essays, but it was saved somewhat by the interview on the essay that followed.

Overall, Id say that Lying in Politics and Civil Disobedience are worthwhile reads. Maybe skip the rest of the book.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Not sure I really understood all of it, but I like her style of writing, with the exception of her “tendency” to put a “lot” of words in “quotes.” I’ve never read her before, id like to try another of her books.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Walkin’ to the Freedom Land

The Berkeley Times. This month, I am pondering on the origins of the present suffering and strife in the USA mirrored, magnified and distorted in our beloved town, how we might grow or back out of it, and how many centuries it may take, if we humans have the luxury of time.

“God shed His grace on thee” is only the beginning of our national suffering, since the doctrine of “manifest destiny” used against Indigenous peoples, religious “pagans,” women, children, elders and many varieties of “others.” Murderous dominance and innate misogyny combined on “American” soil from the very beginning, imported by our European forbears just after the end of most “witch burnings,” as well as dating back to Emperor Theodosius I and dear (St.) Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in North Africa. The former “in 380 C.E. determined to implement his bellicose form of Christianity in the (Middle and Asian) East,…(and) decided to create a power base by wooing the disaffected townsfolk,” (sound familiar?).

The latter in 424 C.E. “gave the most authoritative blessing to… Christian state violence” and argued that violence was “legitimate, however, if inspired by charity—by a sincere concern for the enemy’s welfare,…” [i] that is, “conversion” and the “saving of souls” for the Hereafter. The “passions of greed, hatred and ambition” are therefore swept under the rug in his invention of a “just war,”[ii] which has plagued us ever since. Previous to that, whatever ruler or feudal Lord spoke and acted with impunity, and like King Henry VIII, got rid of troublesome clerics who disagreed, or like DT, simply ignore and dismiss both His Holiness the Dalai Lama and Pope Francis and what he hears as their ecological pacifist nonsense. (So much for the life and morality of 2,600 years of Gautama Buddha and the spiritual and social teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and St. Francis of Assisi.)

Hannah Arendt disputes “the anarchic nature of divinely inspired consciences, so blatantly manifest in the beginnings of Christianity” in her essay, “Civil Disobedience;”[iii] but leaves herself and other females out, even in 1972 in the midst of New York City and America’s Second Wave of feminism. Even after a long life of vast scholastic and publishing honors, she refers to the “human beings” ready to “depart from” the world “just when they have acquired the experience and familiarity that may enable them to be “wise” in the ways of the world,” by saying “they have always been old men.”[iv] (my italics) Her humility and/or unconscious self-abnegation makes me sigh. This is the woman/human being who wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism, “recognized upon publication as the comprehensive account of its subject…later hailed as a classic by the Times Literary Supplement…continues to be the definitive history….” One only has to think of the “sin of Eve,” the annihilation of the Magdalen-loving Cathars and God’s curse upon them to imagine which gender remains “one down” in The New World.

Do we have hope? Or are we so mired in our biological and cultural habits that the “wise” Cassandras of any gender will be ignored and/or silenced once more? Or worse yet, believe in our own “unworthiness,” so that we silence and ignore ourselves in “the unexamined life?”[v]

In 1993, Berkeley intern from Starr King School for the Ministry’s[vi] Helene Knox (no relation) “worked with (Dorothy May Emerson) to refine the initial outline” of Standing Before Us: Unitarian Universalist Women and Social Reform, 1776-1936, and “gathered all the material that had been collected (by the UU Women’s History Publication Project), and began the (meticulous, I am sure, 567 p.) process of actually placing texts into chapters and noting where major gaps occurred”[vii] in a shockingly late inclusion of brilliant women. In “(UUs) dynamic religious liberalism….a religion inspiring them to live in the real world” where “there was too much to do on earth” to avoid “Feminine Foment.”[viii]

Abigail Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Dorothy Day and Frances Dana Gage all the way to Charlotte Perkins Gilman search for and demand reform, justice and tolerance in society, education, sexuality, health, religion, racial representation, work and all venues of North American and American life. It may have taken 224 years to get our work compiled and published, but it shines as a steady wire of hope now. Law and government are not the only venues for association, direct action and resistance; and the powers that be and we ourselves ignore a million foremothers and Mother Earth herself at our collective peril.

Arendt says it is good that our Constitutional challenges proceed slowly “when a significant number of citizens have become convinced either that the normal channels of change no longer function, and grievances will not be heard or acted upon, or that, on the contrary, the government is about to change and has embarked upon and persists in modes of action whose legality and constitutionality are open to grave doubt” (sound familiar?) in reference to Civil Rights and the Vietnam (undeclared) War.[ix] Many immigrants to the United States and Canada, some of them my ancestors, “ran away” from home, away to or away from war. Or away from or to our dreadful Civil War. Or away from domestic violence of a family, not national, sort.

De Toqueville predicted the “most formidable of the ills that threaten the future of the Union” as the primary disenfranchisement (dehumanization, literal “alienation”) of “Negroes and Indians” (and now Latinx) who legally “had never been included in the original consensus universalis of the American republic”[x] due to these imported “othering” worldviews, the need for land and workers. The deeply rooted persistence of this genocide and slavery echo in Leonard Peltier’s Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance, the Rachel Aviv article “How Albert Woodfox Survived Solitary” from The New Yorker and Michelle Alexander’s classic, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness.

The Antifa and Black Bloc members can keep this “legitimate violence” of the police and court system in mind, even as they resist it. The consequences and horrors of “revolutionary” acts and even associations can be dire for individual extremists and for all in our present “data-driven” system. Even true “dissent” still only has legal “validity” if one has “mass demonstrations,” [xi] totally nonviolent and with unified intentions and goals; or if one is a wealthy, White, upper-class, well-connected and/or otherwise “well-armed” male or his chattel.

Even the confrontation of yet another domestic gun massacre committed by a white male is turned aside in our rapid, sophisticated social and television media by defenders of “the Second Amendment,” its “right to bear arms” and its billion-dollar-donating defenders; insane and outmoded as that addiction may be. The conversation quickly turned to throwing more money at “the mentally ill,” even though that’s another “pre-existing condition” those defenders don’t want paid for by government health. Federalization, surveillance and/or “monetization” of the Internet and social media (see the new head of the FCC and threats to your Facebook account data) bring the concepts of “association,” “freedom” and “privacy” under newfound definitions and controls. “There oughta be a law.” There may be one for the 1% elites, and a different one for all the rest of the 99% “community.”

Personally, I’m deliberately going back to the late 1960s, 30s, turn of the last century and beyond for clues as to how we might weather our changes, as well as “Wishes, Lies and Dreams” (Kenneth Koch) and Sci-Fi.

I’m not a bodhisattva this time around. I’m not here to “be a bed for those who have nowhere to sleep,” which is in the prayer His Holiness the Dalai Lama recites every morning. In the vernacular, I think: been there, done that. But I do love my, “guru,” Louise Hay’s saying, “If I hear a negative story, I say, ‘It may be true for them, but it is not true for me,’” because it keeps me relatively sane.

I’m an observer, writer and librarian at heart, too; not really a teacher or lecturer. Here are some good books I’ve been looking at:

Alexander, Michelle, (fwd.) Cornel West, (2012), The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York, NY.

Arendt, Hannah, (May 10, 1972) Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience, On Violence, and Thoughts on Politics and Revolution, Harvest Books, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Armstrong, Karen, (2015), Fields of Blood: Religion and the History of Violence, Alfred A. Knopf, Penguin Random House LLC, New York, NY.

Aviv, Rachel, (16 January, 2017) “How Albert Woodfox Survived Solitary,” https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/20... The New Yorker, New York, NY (2 October, 2017).

Emerson, Dorothy May, author; Helene Knox and June Edwards, eds., (first published July 1st 1999), Standing Before Us: Unitarian Universalist Women and Social Reform, 1776-1936, (September 1st 2001), Skinner House Books, Boston, MA.

Erdrich, Louise, (2008), The Plague of Doves, Harper Collins, New York, NY.

Gladwell, Malcolm, (November 18th 2008), Outliers, “Harlan, Kentucky, ‘Die Like a Man, Like Your Brother Did!’” Little, Brown and Company, esp p. 166-170.

Graham, Hugh Davis and Ted Robert Gurr, (June, 1969), The History of Violence in America, A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, New York Times Books, Bantam Books, New York, NY.

King, Jr., Rev. Dr. Martin Luther, ed. James M. Washington, (1986), A Testament of Hope, The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, NY.

Lynd, Staughton, ed., (1966), Nonviolence in America, A Documentary History, Bobbs-Merrill Corporation, Inc., Indianapolis, ID and New York, NY.

Maté, Gabor, (2008), In the Realm of the Hungry Ghosts, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA.

Peltier, Leonard, Harvey Arden (Editor), Arvol Looking Horse (Introduction), Ramsey Clark (Preface); (June 16th 2000), Prison Writings: My Life Is My Sun Dance, St. Martins Griffin (first published 1999), New York, NY.

Wyndy Knox Carr lives south of campus and can be e-mailed at nohkauz88nohgunz@gmail.com, but don’t expect a quick reply. Her previous articles are on her LinkedIn page in extended versions.

Endnotes:

[i] Armstrong, Karen, (2015), Fields of Blood: Religion and the History of Violence, Alfred A. Knopf, Penguin Random House LLC, New York, NY, p. 168-170.

[ii] Ibid., p. 170.

[iii] Arendt, Hannah, (May 10, 1972) Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience, On Violence, and Thoughts on Politics and Revolution, Harvest Books, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, p. 66.

[iv] ibid., p. 77.

[v] Socrates, the Apology; from Arendt, op. cit., p.59.

[vi] (on Holy Hill, just North of UCal Berkeley campus.)

[vii] Emerson, , Dorothy May, (author); Helene Knox and June Edwards, (eds.), (first published July 1st 1999), Standing Before Us: Unitarian Universalist Women and Social Reform, 1776-1936, (September 1st 2001), Skinner House Books, Boston, MA, p.571.

[viii] Barth, Ramona Sawyer p. 567 from Emerson, ibid.

[ix] Arendt, op. cit., p.74.

[x] Ibid., p. 89-90.

[xi] Ibid., p.95.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Seems like a good moment to read about lying in politics.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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